We often receive calls from clients asking, “Why shouldn’t I file at 62 if I plan on continuing to work?”
The answer: the earnings test may apply. We all know that when someone files for Social Security before full retirement age, his or her benefit is reduced. But continuing to work does not guarantee the outcome you might expect. The Social Security Administration withholds benefits if your earnings exceed a certain level and if you are under your full retirement age — this is called the earnings test.
Our 62-year-old client could have his benefit withheld entirely, depending on how much income he makes. In other words, if he makes an income above the Social Security Administration-defined threshold, he and his dependents might receive nothing if he files at 62 and continues working!

Learn more about how the earnings test could affect your benefits…

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February is American Heart Month…

Exercising more, sitting less reduces heart failure risk in men

Sitting for long periods increases heart failure risk in men, even for those who exercise regularly, according to new research published in the American Heart Association journal Circulation: Heart Failure.

Preventing heart failure, researchers found, requires a two-part behavioral approach: high levels of physical activity plus low levels of sedentary time. The study is the first to examine the link between heart failure risk and sedentary time, said Deborah Rohm Young, Ph.D., lead researcher and a senior scientist at Kaiser Permanente in Pasadena, Calif.

“Be more active and sit less. That’s the message here,” Young said.

Researchers followed a racially diverse group of 84,170 men ages 45 to 69 without heart failure. Exercise levels were calculated in METs, or metabolic equivalent of task, a measure of the body’s energy use. Sedentary levels were measured in hours. After an average of nearly eight years of follow-up, researchers found:

Men with low levels of physical activity were 52 percent more likely to develop heart failure than men with high physical activity levels, even after adjusting for differences in sedentary time.
Outside of work, men who spent five or more hours a day sitting were 34 percent more likely to develop heart failure than men who spent no more than two hours a day sitting, regardless of how much they exercised.
Heart failure risk more than doubled in men who sat for at least five hours a day and got little exercise compared to men who were very physically active and sat for two hours or less a day.
Study limitations included: Since no women were studied the results may not apply to them; results were self-reported, which could mean physical activity was over reported; results were based only on time outside of work and can’t be applied to overall sedentary activity; and participants were members of comprehensive health plans, so results may not apply to men lacking health insurance.

The study supports the American Heart Association recommendation that people get at least 150 minutes a week of moderate-intensity aerobic activity to reduce their risk for heart failure and other cardiovascular diseases, Young said.

Author disclosures and sources of funding are on the manuscript.

For the latest heart and stroke news, follow us on Twitter: @HeartNews.


Statements and conclusions of study authors published in American Heart Association scientific journals are solely those of the study authors and do not necessarily reflect the association’s policy or position. The association makes no representation or guarantee as to their accuracy or reliability. The association receives funding primarily from individuals; foundations and corporations (including pharmaceutical, device manufacturers and other companies) also make donations and fund specific association programs and events. The association has strict policies to prevent these relationships from influencing the science content. Revenues from pharmaceutical and device corporations are available at www.heart.org/corporatefunding.

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Medicare and Desegregation…

Medicare And The Desegregation Of American Hospitals
As anyone who has followed the Obamacare roller coaster over the past 4 years knows, passing legislation is only the first step in reforming a healthcare system. Since Obamacare came into law, we have been consumed by battles over how to implement it, and by struggles over how to make it work effectively. But such implementation struggles are not new to Obamacare. We sometimes fail to remember that previous healthcare laws rolled out with a fair amount of controversy of their own.

For example, when Medicare was passed into law in 1965, the program was far from a done deal, especially in the South where Medicare threatened to end hospital segregation.

Federal programs had long been a challenge for those in the South who favored segregation. When Social Security was passed into law, southern Democrats managed to keep most black people out of Social Security by excluding farm and domestic workers from receiving such benefits. But Social Security eventually expanded to include these people, which did not please many southern conservatives. That’s why when Medicare was passed into law, they were determined to prevent it – another damn federal program – from interfering with the southern way of life. At the time, you see, many southern hospitals were segregated. If these hospitals wanted to receive Medicare funds, however, they would need to desegregate.

Lyndon Johnson was determined to use Medicare to force these hospitals to change, so he sent 1,000 inspectors south to determine whether hospitals were in compliance with federal law. They found half of the hospitals to be delinquent. Southern hospitals, it seemed, hoped that the federal government would simply give up, when they realized the size of the challenge they faced. But Johnson refused to back down. He held strong. As explained in The Heart of Power, federal regulators told one Confederate hospital in Louisiana:

“That they must not only take the ‘white’ and ‘colored’ signs off the doors but that they must also label them ‘entrance’ and ‘exit’ and fix the door handles accordingly. They were also told not just to take the ‘colored’ and ‘white’ signs out of the waiting rooms but to label one the ‘main waiting room’ and to cordon off the other, and put…in a sign saying ‘overflow waiting room’ – to be used only when the main waiting room is full.”

Anyone who has read Robert Caro’s glorious biography of Johnson knows that LBJ was power-hungry, willing literally to lie, cheat and steal his way to political victory. But this complex man was also deeply committed to racial justice. And when he had federal leverage to end the abhorrent practice of hospital segregation, he did.


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Republicans offer their plan to replace Obamacare…

Key Senate Republicans Offer Their Plan To Replace Obamacare
By Julie Rovner
Originally published on Tue January 28, 2014 9:41 am

Republicans have offered a wide array of proposals to “repeal and replace” the Affordable Care Act since it became law in 2010. But few have come with the pedigree of the plan just unveiled by a trio of senior Senate Republicans.

The Patient Choice, Affordability, Responsibility and Empowerment Act, or CARE for short, is a proposal being floated by Sens. Richard Burr, R-N.C., Orrin Hatch, R-Utah, and Tom Coburn, R-Okla.

Hatch is the senior Republican on the Senate Finance Committee; Burr is on the health subcommittee of the Health, Education, Labor and Pensions Committee; Coburn is a physician. All three have spent much or all of their legislative careers working on health policy.

“Obamacare just isn’t working,” Hatch said on the Senate floor Monday afternoon. “Try as he might during tomorrow night’s State of the Union address, President Obama will not be able to convince the American people that his health care law is anything other than an unmitigated disaster.”

At a briefing for health reporters, aides to the senators said the goal of their proposal is to focus on bringing down costs. Hence the plan would repeal the ACA’s requirements that most people have insurance, as well as requirements that insurers offer minimum benefits and employers offer insurance or face potential fines.

The Republican proposal also would eliminate most of the taxes and fees that the law imposes to pay for the generous tax credits offered to help people pay for the required insurance.

And the plan would repeal the requirement that insurers cover people with pre-existing health conditions, although people who remain “continuously covered” for at least 18 months could not be denied or charged more. And while the plan would keep the ACA’s ban on insurers’ imposing a lifetime limit on insurance benefits, annual limits could return.

The GOP plan offers its own set of tax credits to help those with lower incomes afford coverage, and like those in the ACA, they would be adjusted for age but not for geography. That means the tax credit would be the same across the nation, even though insurance costs differ widely in different parts of the country.

The tax credits also would be available to those earning up to three times the federal poverty line, or $34,470 in 2013. That’s less than in the ACA, which provides help for those earning up to four times the poverty level, or $45,960.

The GOP plan also would let insurers charge older people more than the ACA does, which could lower premiums for younger people. The ACA limits premium differences for older people to three times more than those for young people; the GOP proposal would allow premiums for older people to be as much as five times higher, although states could opt for different “age rating,” staffers said.

The proposal would leave the Medicare provisions of the health law untouched (“this is not about Medicare,” said one of the aides). But it would dramatically remake the Medicaid program, which is undergoing a big expansion as a result of the ACA.

The GOP plan would end the expansion of Medicaid to include all people below a certain income level. It would cap Medicaid’s currently unlimited funding, except for the elderly and disabled. States would instead get payments based on the number of low-income families and children, described by staffers as the program’s “traditional populations.” But there apparently would be no plan to continue insurance for people who are currently signing up for Medicaid in the half of states now expanding the program. Instead, those people would be offered tax credits.

And while the aides insisted that the overall plan is intended to create less disruption for people insured through their jobs, the GOP plan would be financed via a highly controversial mechanism: capping the so-called employer health insurance exclusion at 65 percent. That means that for the average worker, 35 percent of the health insurance benefits that are currently tax-free would instead be considered taxable income.

Economists across the political spectrum have recommended such a change as a way to curb the growing generosity of employer-provided health benefits. But the first small step toward that, a so-called Cadillac tax in the ACA, has proved so radioactive that most people doubt it will ever take effect as scheduled in 2018.

Copyright 2014 NPR. To see more, visit http://www.npr.org/.

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Can I be denied Health Insurance with a pre-exsisting condition ?

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) attempts to ensure that all eligible individuals have access to affordable health care, regardless of their health status. In the past, some insurers would offer insurance coverage in general, but exclude coverage for care related to a pre-existing health condition, referred to as a pre-existing condition exclusion. But since 2010, individuals under the age of 19 can’t be denied coverage due to pre-existing health conditions, nor can insurers include pre-existing condition exclusions. Starting in 2014, neither group health plans nor individual plans may deny coverage based on pre-existing health conditions. And, plans (with the exception of grandfathered individual plans) are prohibited from imposing pre-existing condition exclusions. This means that you can’t be denied coverage as an applicant; your insurer can’t cancel your coverage for any reason except fraud; and your plan can’t exclude coverage for a pre-existing health condition (unless your plan is a grandfathered plan, meaning it was in place on March 23, 2010).

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Financial Planning..Helping you see the Big Picture

Do you picture yourself owning a new home, starting a business, or retiring comfortably? These are a few of the financial goals that may be important to you, and each comes with a price tag attached.

That’s where financial planning comes in. Financial planning is a process that can help you reach your goals by evaluating your whole financial picture, then outlining strategies that are tailored to your individual needs and available resources.

Why is financial planning important?

A comprehensive financial plan serves as a framework for organizing the pieces of your financial picture. With a financial plan in place, you’ll be better able to focus on your goals and understand what it will take to reach them.

One of the main benefits of having a financial plan is that it can help you balance competing financial priorities. A financial plan will clearly show you how your financial goals are related–for example, how saving for your children’s college education might impact your ability to save for retirement. Then you can use the information you’ve gleaned to decide how to prioritize your goals, implement specific strategies, and choose suitable products or services. Best of all, you’ll have the peace of mind that comes from knowing that your financial life is on track.

The financial planning process

Creating and implementing a comprehensive financial plan generally involves working with financial professionals to:
•Develop a clear picture of your current financial situation by reviewing your income, assets, and liabilities, and evaluating your insurance coverage, your investment portfolio, your tax exposure, and your estate plan
•Establish and prioritize financial goals and time frames for achieving these goals
•Implement strategies that address your current financial weaknesses and build on your financial strengths
•Choose specific products and services that are tailored to meet your financial objectives
•Monitor your plan, making adjustments as your goals, time frames, or circumstances change

Some members of the team

The financial planning process can involve a number of professionals.

Financial planners typically play a central role in the process, focusing on your overall financial plan, and often coordinating the activities of other professionals who have expertise in specific areas.

Accountants or tax attorneys provide advice on federal and state tax issues.

Estate planning attorneys help you plan your estate and give advice on transferring and managing your assets before and after your death.

Insurance professionals evaluate insurance needs and recommend appropriate products and strategies.

Investment advisors provide advice about investment options and asset allocation, and can help you plan a strategy to manage your investment portfolio.

The most important member of the team, however, is you. Your needs and objectives drive the team, and once you’ve carefully considered any recommendations, all decisions lie in your hands.

Why can’t I do it myself?

You can, if you have enough time and knowledge, but developing a comprehensive financial plan may require expertise in several areas. A financial professional can give you objective information and help you weigh your alternatives, saving you time and ensuring that all angles of your financial picture are covered.

Staying on track

The financial planning process doesn’t end once your initial plan has been created. Your plan should generally be reviewed at least once a year to make sure that it’s up-to-date. It’s also possible that you’ll need to modify your plan due to changes in your personal circumstances or the economy. Here are some of the events that might trigger a review of your financial plan:
•Your goals or time horizons change
•You experience a life-changing event such as marriage, the birth of a child, health problems, or a job loss
•You have a specific or immediate financial planning need (e.g., drafting a will, managing a distribution from a retirement account, paying long-term care expenses)
•Your income or expenses substantially increase or decrease
•Your portfolio hasn’t performed as expected
•You’re affected by changes to the economy or tax laws

Common questions about financial planning

What if I’m too busy?

Don’t wait until you’re in the midst of a financial crisis before beginning the planning process. The sooner you start, the more options you may have.

Is the financial planning process complicated?

Each financial plan is tailored to the needs of the individual, so how complicated the process will be depends on your individual circumstances. But no matter what type of help you need, a financial professional will work hard to make the process as easy as possible, and will gladly answer all of your questions.

What if my spouse and I disagree?

A financial professional is trained to listen to your concerns, identify any underlying issues, and help you find common ground.

Can I still control my own finances?

Financial planning professionals make recommendations, not decisions. You retain control over your finances. Recommendations will be based on your needs, values, goals, and time frames. You decide which recommendations to follow, then work with a financial professional to implement them.

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April is Financial Literacy Month…

April is Financial Literacy Month–the perfect time to get assistance and get on track with your savings and investing goals. During the month of April we will be publishing several educational articles that you may find useful. Here is is the first of many… Helping you see the Big Picture.

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Six Keys to More Successful Investing

A successful investor maximizes gain and minimizes loss. Though there can be no guarantee that any investment strategy will be successful and all investing involves risk, including the possible loss of principal, here are six basic principles that may help you invest more successfully.

Long-term compounding can help your nest egg growIt’s the “rolling snowball” effect. Put simply, compounding pays you earnings on your reinvested earnings. The longer you leave your money at work for you, the more exciting the numbers get. For example, imagine an investment of $10,000 at an annual rate of return of 8 percent. In 20 years, assuming no withdrawals, your $10,000 investment would grow to $46,610. In 25 years, it would grow to $68,485, a 47 percent gain over the 20-year figure. After 30 years, your account would total $100,627. (Of course, this is a hypothetical example that does not reflect the performance of any specific investment.)

This simple example also assumes that no taxes are paid along the way, so all money stays invested. That would be the case in a tax-deferred individual retirement account or qualified retirement plan. The compounded earnings of deferred tax dollars are the main reason experts recommend fully funding all tax-advantaged retirement accounts and plans available to you.

While you should review your portfolio on a regular basis, the point is that money left alone in an investment offers the potential of a significant return over time. With time on your side, you don’t have to go for investment “home runs” in order to be successful.

Endure short-term pain for long-term gainRiding out market volatility sounds simple, doesn’t it? But what if you’ve invested $10,000 in the stock market and the price of the stock drops like a stone one day? On paper, you’ve lost a bundle, offsetting the value of compounding you’re trying to achieve. It’s tough to stand pat.

There’s no denying it–the financial marketplace can be volatile. Still, it’s important to remember two things. First, the longer you stay with a diversified portfolio of investments, the more likely you are to reduce your risk and improve your opportunities for gain. Though past performance doesn’t guarantee future results, the long-term direction of the stock market has historically been up. Take your time horizon into account when establishing your investment game plan. For assets you’ll use soon, you may not have the time to wait out the market and should consider investments designed to protect your principal. Conversely, think long-term for goals that are many years away.

Second, during any given period of market or economic turmoil, some asset categories and some individual investments historically have been less volatile than others. Bond price swings, for example, have generally been less dramatic than stock prices. Though diversification alone cannot guarantee a profit or ensure against the possibility of loss, you can minimize your risk somewhat by diversifying your holdings among various classes of assets, as well as different types of assets within each class.

Spread your wealth through asset allocationAsset allocation is the process by which you spread your dollars over several categories of investments, usually referred to as asset classes. These classes include stocks, bonds, cash (and cash alternatives), real estate, precious metals, collectibles, and in some cases, insurance products. You’ll also see the term “asset classes” used to refer to subcategories, such as aggressive growth stocks, long-term growth stocks, international stocks, government bonds (U.S., state, and local), high-quality corporate bonds, low-quality corporate bonds, and tax-free municipal bonds. A basic asset allocation would likely include at least stocks, bonds (or mutual funds of stocks and bonds), and cash or cash alternatives.

There are two main reasons why asset allocation is important. First, the mix of asset classes you own is a large factor–some say the biggest factor by far–in determining your overall investment portfolio performance. In other words, the basic decision about how to divide your money between stocks, bonds, and cash is probably more important than your subsequent decisions over exactly which companies to invest in, for example.

Second, by dividing your investment dollars among asset classes that do not respond to the same market forces in the same way at the same time, you can help minimize the effects of market volatility while maximizing your chances of return in the long term. Ideally, if your investments in one class are performing poorly, assets in another class may be doing better. Any gains in the latter can help offset the losses in the former and help minimize their overall impact on your portfolio.

Consider liquidity in your investment choicesLiquidity refers to how quickly you can convert an investment into cash without loss of principal (your initial investment). Generally speaking, the sooner you’ll need your money, the wiser it is to keep it in investments with comparatively less volatile price movements. You want to avoid a situation, for example, where you need to write a tuition check next Tuesday, but the money is tied up in an investment whose price is currently down.

Therefore, your liquidity needs should affect your investment choices. If you’ll need the money within the next one to three years, you may want to consider certificates of deposit or a savings account, which are insured by the FDIC, or short-term bonds or a money market account, which are neither insured or guaranteed by the FDIC or any other governmental agency. Your rate of return will likely be lower than that possible with more volatile investments such as stocks, but you’ll breathe easier knowing that the principal you invested is relatively safe and quickly available, without concern over market conditions on a given day.

Note: If you’re considering a mutual fund, consider its investment objectives, risks, charges, and expenses, all of which are outlined in the prospectus, available from the fund. Consider the information carefully before investing.

Dollar cost averaging: investing consistently and oftenDollar cost averaging is a method of accumulating shares of stock or a mutual fund by purchasing a fixed dollar amount of these securities at regularly scheduled intervals over an extended time. When the price is high, your fixed-dollar investment buys less; when prices are low, the same dollar investment will buy more shares. A regular, fixed-dollar investment should result in a lower average price per share than you would get buying a fixed number of shares at each investment interval.

Remember that, just as with any investment strategy, dollar cost averaging can’t guarantee you a profit or protect you against a loss if the market is declining. To maximize the potential effects of dollar cost averaging, you should also assess your ability to keep investing even when the market is down.

An alternative to dollar cost averaging would be trying to “time the market,” in an effort to predict how the price of the shares will fluctuate in the months ahead so you can make your full investment at the absolute lowest point. However, market timing is generally unprofitable guesswork. The discipline of regular investing is a much more manageable strategy, and it has the added benefit of automating the process.

Buy and hold, don’t buy and forgetUnless you plan to rely on luck, your portfolio’s long-term success will depend on periodically reviewing it. Maybe your uncle’s hot stock tip has frozen over. Maybe economic conditions have changed the prospects for a particular investment, or an entire asset class.

Even if nothing bad at all happens, your various investments will likely appreciate at different rates, which will alter your asset allocation without any action on your part. For example, if you initially decided on an 80 percent to 20 percent mix of stocks to bonds, you might find that after several years the total value of your portfolio has become divided 88 percent to 12 percent (conversely, if stocks haven’t done well, you might have a 70-30 ratio of stocks to bonds in this hypothetical example). You need to review your portfolio periodically to see if you need to return to your original allocation. To rebalance your portfolio, you would buy more of the asset class that’s lower than desired, possibly using some of the proceeds of the asset class that is now larger than you intended.

Another reason for periodic portfolio review: your circumstances change over time, and your asset allocation will need to reflect those changes. For example, as you get closer to retirement, you might decide to increase your allocation to less volatile investments, or those that can provide a steady stream of income.

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Annuity Tax Facts

Q: How are annuity payments taxed?

A: The basic rule for taxing annuity payments (i.e., “amounts received as an annuity”) is designed to return the purchaser’s investment in equal tax-free amounts over the payment period and to tax the balance of each payment received as earnings. Each payment, therefore, is part nontaxable return of cost and part taxable income. Any excess interest (dividends) added to the guaranteed payments is reportable as income for the year received.

Q: Are dividends payable on an annuity contract taxable income?

A: Taxation of dividends under an annuity contract depends on when the contract was purchased. If the contract was purchased after August 13, 1982, dividends received before the annuity starting date are taxable to the extent the cash value of the contract (determined without regard to any surrender charge) immediately before the dividend is received exceeds the investment in the contract at the same time. If there is no excess of cash value over the investment in the contract (i.e., no gain), further dividends are treated as a tax-free recovery of investment. If the annuity contract was purchased before August 14, 1982, and no additional investment was made in the contract after August 13, 1982, the dividends will be taxed like dividends received under life insurance contracts (generally tax-free until basis has been recovered).[1]

Q: What penalties apply to “premature” distributions under annuity contracts?

A: To discourage the use of annuity contracts as short term tax sheltered investments, a 10 percent tax is imposed on certain “premature” payments under annuity contracts.[1] The penalty tax applies to any payment received to the extent the payment is includable in income. There are nine exceptions to the penalty tax.

Q: What is the tax treatment of dividends where annuity values are paid in installments or as a life income?

A: Dividends received before the annuity start date or the first date that an amount is received as an annuity, whichever is later, are included in the recipient’s gross income to the extent that those dividends, taken with other amounts received under the contract that were excludable from gross income, are greater than the total premiums (or other consideration) paid by the recipient to that date. Also, dividends thus received must be subtracted from the consideration paid for purposes of the exclusion ratio that will be applied to payments received from the annuity after the date of the dividend.[1]

Q: What tax rules govern dividends, cash withdrawals, and other amounts received under annuity contracts before the annuity starting date?

A: Policy dividends (unless retained by the insurer as premiums or other consideration), cash withdrawals, amounts received as loans and the value of any part of an annuity contract pledged or assigned, and amounts received on partial surrender under annuity contracts entered into after August 13, 1982, are taxable as income to the extent that the cash value of the contract immediately before the payment exceeds the investment in the contract (i.e., to the extent there is gain in the contract).[1] To the extent the amount received is greater than the gain, the excess is treated as a tax-free return of investment. In effect, this ordering treatment results in distributions being treated as interest or gains first and only second as recovery of cost. (In addition, taxable amounts may be subject to a 10 percent penalty tax unless paid after age 59½ or disability.)

Q: What are the income tax results when an annuitant makes a partial lump sum withdrawal and takes a reduced annuity for the same term or the same payments for a different term?

A: The income tax results are different depending on the annuitant’s circumstances. When taking a reduced annuity for the same term, the nontaxable portion of the lump sum withdrawn is an amount that bears the same ratio to the unrecovered investment in the contract as the reduction in the annuity payment bears to the original payment. The original exclusion ratio will apply to the reduced payments; that is, the same percentage of each payment will be excludable from gross income.[1]

Q: How is the excludable portion of an annuity payment under a fixed period or fixed amount option computed?

A: For non-variable contracts, the basic annuity rule applies: Divide the investment in the contract by the expected return under the contract to determine the exclusion ratio for the payments. Apply this ratio to each payment to find the portion that is excludable from gross income. The balance of the payment is includable in gross income.

Q: If an annuitant dies before his or her deferred annuity matures or is annuitized, is the amount payable at the annuitant’s death subject to income tax?

A: Yes. An annuity contract generally provides that if the annuitant dies before the annuity starting date, the beneficiary will be paid, as a death benefit, the greater of the amount of premium paid or the accumulated value of the contract. The gain, if any, is taxable as ordinary income to the beneficiary. The death benefit under an annuity contract does not qualify for tax exemption under IRC Section 101(a) as life insurance proceeds payable by reason of the insured’s death.

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Insurance Needs in Retirement

Your goals and priorities will probably change as you plan to retire. Along with them, your insurance needs may change as well. Retirement is typically a good time to review the different parts of your insurance program and make any changes that might be needed.

Stay well with good health insurance

After you retire, you’ll probably focus more on your health than ever before. Staying healthy is your goal, and that may require more visits to the doctor for preventive tests and routine checkups. There’s also a chance that your health will decline as you grow older, increasing your need for costly prescription drugs and medical treatments. All of this can add up to substantial medical bills after you’ve left the workforce (and probably lost your employer’s health benefits). You need health insurance that meets both your needs and your budget.

Fortunately, you’ll get some help from Uncle Sam. You typically become eligible for Medicare coverage at the same time you become eligible for Social Security retirement benefits. Premium-free Medicare Part A covers inpatient hospital care, while Medicare Part B (for which you’ll pay a premium) covers physician care, laboratory tests, physical therapy, and other medical expenses. But don’t expect Medicare to cover everything after you retire. For instance, you’ll have to pay a large deductible and make co-payments for certain types of care. Medicare prescription drug coverage is only available through a managed care plan (a Medicare Advantage plan), or through a Medicare prescription drug plan offered by a private company or insurer (premiums apply).

To supplement Medicare, you may want to purchase a Medigap policy. These policies are specifically designed to fill the holes in Medicare’s coverage. Though Medigap policies are sold by private insurance companies, they’re regulated by the federal government. There are 12 standard Medigap plans, but not all of them are offered in every state. All of these plans provide certain core benefits, and all but one offer combinations of additional benefits. Be sure to look at both cost and benefits when choosing a plan.

What if you’re retiring early and won’t be eligible for Medicare for a number of years? If you’re lucky, your employer may give you a retirement package that includes health benefits at least until Medicare kicks in. If not, you may be able to continue your employer’s coverage at your own expense through COBRA. But this is only a short-term solution, because COBRA coverage typically lasts only 18 months. Another option is to buy an individual policy, though you may not be insurable if you’re in poor health. Even if you are insurable, the coverage may be very expensive.

Don’t overlook long-term care insurance

If you’re able to stay healthy and active throughout your life, you may never need to enter a nursing home or receive at-home care. But the fact is, many people aged 65 and older will require some type of long-term care during their lives. And that number is likely to go up in future years because people are increasingly living longer. On top of that, long-term care is expensive. You should be prepared in case you do need long-term care at some point.

Unfortunately, Medicare provides very limited coverage for long-term care. You may be covered for a short-term nursing home stay immediately following hospitalization, but that’s about it. Other government and military-sponsored programs may help foot the bill, but generally only if you meet strict eligibility requirements. For example, Medicaid requires that you exhaust most of your assets before you can qualify for long-term care benefits. Even a good private health insurance policy will not offer much coverage for long-term care. But most long-term care insurance (LTCI) policies will.

LTCI is sold by private insurance companies and typically covers skilled, intermediate, and custodial care in a nursing home. Most policies also cover home care services and care in a community-based setting (e.g., an assisted-living facility). This type of insurance can be a cost-effective way to protect yourself against long-term care costs–the key is to buy a policy when you’re still relatively young (most companies won’t sell you a policy if you’re under age 40). If you wait until you’re older or ill, LTCI may be unavailable or much more expensive.

Weigh your need for life insurance

If you’re married, you want to make sure that your spouse will have enough money when you die. You may also have children and other heirs you want to take care of. Life insurance can be one way to accomplish these goals, but several questions arise as you near retirement. Should you keep that existing policy in place? If so, should you change the coverage amount? What if you don’t have any life insurance because you lost your group coverage at work (though some employers let you keep the coverage at your own expense)? Should you go out and buy some? The answers depend largely on your particular circumstances.

Your life insurance needs may not be as great during retirement because your financial picture may have improved. When you’re working and raising a family, the loss of your job income could be devastating. You often need life insurance to replace that income, meet your outstanding debts (e.g., your mortgage, car loans, credit cards), and fund your kids’ college education in case something happens to you. But after you retire, there’s usually no significant job income to protect. Plus, your kids may be grown and most of your debts paid off. You may even be financially secure enough to provide for your loved ones without insurance.

It may make sense to go without life insurance in these cases, especially if you have term life insurance and your premium has increased dramatically. But what if you still have financial obligations and few assets of your own? Or what if you’re looking for a way to pay your estate tax bill? Then you may want to keep your coverage in force (or buy coverage, if you have none). If you need life insurance but not as much as you have now, you can always lower your coverage amount. It’s best to talk to a professional before making any decisions. He or she can help you weigh your needs against the cost of coverage.

Take a look at your auto and homeowners policies

If you stay in your home after you retire, your homeowners insurance needs may not change much. But you should still review your liability coverage to make sure it’s sufficient to protect your assets. If you’re liable for an accident on or off your premises, claims against you for medical bills and other expenses can be substantial. For additional protection, you might consider buying an umbrella liability policy. It’s also a good idea to review the coverage you have on your home itself and the property inside it. Finally, if you plan to buy a second home, find out if your insurer will cover both homes and give you a discount on your premium.

Auto insurance raises some similar issues. Review your policy to make sure your coverage limits are high enough in each area. Again, having the right amount of liability coverage is especially important–you don’t want your assets to be put at risk if you cause an auto accident that injures other people or damages property. Weigh your need for any coverages that are optional in your state. Finally, look into ways to save on your premium now that you’re retired (e.g., discounts for low annual mileage or senior driving courses).

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